Vous et nul autre
 
‎"Tell me, sir, what is a butterfly?"
"It's what you are meant to become. It flies with beautiful wings and joins the earth to heaven. It drinks only nectar from the flowers and carries the seeds of love from one flower to another. Without butterflies, the world would soon have few flowers.”
 
"The world should place less emphasis
on ‘growing up’ and more on
simply growing as a human being."
written by Beau Taplin || growth.  (via mirroir)

(Source: afadthatlastsforever, via mirroir)

13394
Erin Case

Erin Case

(Source: volcranis, via wryer)

5275urgencynetwork:

Win a TRIP TO SPACE for going here and supporting a cause of your choice.

urgencynetwork:

Win a TRIP TO SPACE for going here and supporting a cause of your choice.

(via laboratoryequipment)

792ethiopienne:

Sonia Sotomayor delivers blistering dissent against affirmative action ban

The Supreme Court upheld Michigan’s ban on affirmative action Tuesday, but not without a blistering dissent from Justice Sonia Sotomayor.
Sotomayor said the decision infringed upon groups’ rights by allowing Michigan voters to change “the basic rules of the political process … in a manner that uniquely disadvantaged racial minorities.”
"In my colleagues’ view, examining the racial impact of legislation only perpetuates racial discrimination," Sotomayor added. “This refusal to accept the stark reality that race matters is regrettable. As members of the judiciary tasked with intervening to carry out the guarantee of equal protection, we ought not sit back and wish away, rather than confront, the racial inequality that exists in our society.”
The court’s 6-2 decision upheld a voter-approved change to the Michigan state Constitution that prevents public colleges from using race as a factor in its admissions. As the AP noted, the ruling provides a boost for other education-related affirmative action bans in California and Washington state.
ABC News pointed out that Sotomayor has been open about the role affirmative action has played in her personal life. In her memoir “My Beloved World,” Sotomayor wrote that it “opened doors” for her.
"But one thing has not changed: to doubt the worth of minority students’ achievement when they succeed is really only to present another face of the prejudice that would deny them a chance even to try," she wrote.
Read Sotomayor’s full dissent here.

ethiopienne:

Sonia Sotomayor delivers blistering dissent against affirmative action ban

The Supreme Court upheld Michigan’s ban on affirmative action Tuesday, but not without a blistering dissent from Justice Sonia Sotomayor.

Sotomayor said the decision infringed upon groups’ rights by allowing Michigan voters to change “the basic rules of the political process … in a manner that uniquely disadvantaged racial minorities.”

"In my colleagues’ view, examining the racial impact of legislation only perpetuates racial discrimination," Sotomayor added. “This refusal to accept the stark reality that race matters is regrettable. As members of the judiciary tasked with intervening to carry out the guarantee of equal protection, we ought not sit back and wish away, rather than confront, the racial inequality that exists in our society.”

The court’s 6-2 decision upheld a voter-approved change to the Michigan state Constitution that prevents public colleges from using race as a factor in its admissions. As the AP noted, the ruling provides a boost for other education-related affirmative action bans in California and Washington state.

ABC News pointed out that Sotomayor has been open about the role affirmative action has played in her personal life. In her memoir “My Beloved World,” Sotomayor wrote that it “opened doors” for her.

"But one thing has not changed: to doubt the worth of minority students’ achievement when they succeed is really only to present another face of the prejudice that would deny them a chance even to try," she wrote.

Read Sotomayor’s full dissent here.

(via labrownrecluse)

"

A black male could not offer his hand (to shake hands) with a white male because it implied being socially equal. Obviously, a black male could not offer his hand or any other part of his body to a white woman, because he risked being accused of rape.

Blacks and whites were not supposed to eat together. If they did eat together, whites were to be served first, and some sort of partition was to be placed between them.

Under no circumstance was a black male to offer to light the cigarette of a white female — that gesture implied intimacy.

Blacks were not allowed to show public affection toward one another in public, especially kissing, because it offended whites.

Jim Crow etiquette prescribed that blacks were introduced to whites, never whites to blacks. For example: “Mr. Peters (the white person), this is Charlie (the black person), that I spoke to you about.”

Whites did not use courtesy titles of respect when referring to blacks, for example, Mr., Mrs., Miss., Sir, or Ma’am. Instead, blacks were called by their first names. Blacks had to use courtesy titles when referring to whites, and were not allowed to call them by their first names.

If a black person rode in a car driven by a white person, the black person sat in the back seat, or the back of a truck.

White motorists had the right-of-way at all intersections.

"
written by

Jim Crow Etiquette Just a little more history for the folks who think slavery was the end of racism in America. (via karnythia)

My suburban white friends were so confused that my parents introduced themselves as Mr. and Mrs. and that I always addressed adults that way. They just don’t know.  And I don’t know how popular of a trend this was, but some Black folks gave their children honorifics as first names so white people would have no choice but to call them ‘Mister’ or ‘Sir’.  Like, I know tangentially of a woman who’s first name is Doctor.

(via blackraincloud)

Blacks were not allowed to show public affection toward one another in public, especially kissing, because it offended whites.”

Can we look at this one right here real close?

POC in intimate relationships showing each other affection *was considered offensive*. I am kinda wondering, given the absence of intra poc relationships in mass media, if it still is considered as such.

(via deluxvivens)

PRECISELY WHAT CAUGHT MY EYE. DA FUCK?????????????????

(via searchingforknowledge)

Well looking at this post, yes

http://ai-yo.tumblr.com/post/25570734067/deluxvivens-karnythia-deluxvivens-snip

(via ai-yo)

(via the-uncensored-she)

"Mother used to say escape is never further than the nearest book."
written by David Mitchell - Cloud Atlas (via abookblog)

(via colourthysoul)

katara:

everything always happens so much

(via mirroir)

57the-uncensored-she:

fuckyeahmarxismleninism:

Why Female Nudity Isn’t Obscene, But Is Threatening to a Sexist Status Quo
By Soraya Chemaly
The newest issue of Hip Mama magazine features a photograph of artist Ana Alvarez-Errecald standing, topless, holding her baby. He’s wearing a Spiderman costume and she is wearing the mask. The child is breastfeeding at one of her breasts and holding his hand over the other. After distributors expressed concern about having the magazine on US newsstands, HipMama was forced to publish not one, but two, covers: a “family-friendly” one that ensured it would be sold on newsstands and in supermarkets in which her bared breast is hidden by a large red dot and another, mailed to subscribers, in which her child’s hand on her breast will be apparent. Alvarez-Errecald’s most prominent earlier work, a diptych titled “The Birth of My Daughter,” is also being published in the magazine. Trust me, that piece will not be appearing on magazine covers anytime soon.
The cover image has been removed on Facebook as obscene and the artists’ Facebook page was, erroneously or not, unpublished.  It cataloged her work, which included other images of bare breasts and had more than 2,000 followers, now lost to her.


It’s considered “obscene” whenever a woman’s body is presented in a way not geared towards gratifying the Male Gaze, ie: breast feeding. That might imply that women are human beings with natural bodily functions, as opposed to being mere fuckdolls and a pair of tits.

the-uncensored-she:

fuckyeahmarxismleninism:

Why Female Nudity Isn’t Obscene, But Is Threatening to a Sexist Status Quo

By Soraya Chemaly

The newest issue of Hip Mama magazine features a photograph of artist Ana Alvarez-Errecald standing, topless, holding her baby. He’s wearing a Spiderman costume and she is wearing the mask. The child is breastfeeding at one of her breasts and holding his hand over the other. After distributors expressed concern about having the magazine on US newsstands, HipMama was forced to publish not one, but two, covers: a “family-friendly” one that ensured it would be sold on newsstands and in supermarkets in which her bared breast is hidden by a large red dot and another, mailed to subscribers, in which her child’s hand on her breast will be apparent. Alvarez-Errecald’s most prominent earlier work, a diptych titled “The Birth of My Daughter,” is also being published in the magazine. Trust me, that piece will not be appearing on magazine covers anytime soon.

The cover image has been removed on Facebook as obscene and the artists’ Facebook page was, erroneously or not, unpublished.  It cataloged her work, which included other images of bare breasts and had more than 2,000 followers, now lost to her.

It’s considered “obscene” whenever a woman’s body is presented in a way not geared towards gratifying the Male Gaze, ie: breast feeding. That might imply that women are human beings with natural bodily functions, as opposed to being mere fuckdolls and a pair of tits.
"cultural appropriation. they love everything about us but us."
written by (via neapple)

(via the-uncensored-she)

76thejunglenook:


So It Turns Out That Monkeys Are Pretty Good At Doing Math
George Dvorsky, io9A recently concluded experiment shows that rhesus monkeys are capable of doing simple addition using numbers 1 through 25. But more interesting than that is the observation that they also make the same mistakes as us.To test whether monkeys can represent and manipulate numbers in their head, neurobiologist Margaret Livingstone of Harvard Medical School and her colleagues set up a rather interesting experiment.Prior to this, however, the monkeys learned to associate the Arabic numbers 0 through 9 and 15 select letters with the values zero through 25. This was done by having the monkeys choose larger numbers as a means to acquire greater quantities of a food reward.But for the new experiment, the monkeys had to work a bit harder for it. They had to perform addition in order to correctly choose the larger reward. Specifically, they were given a choice between performing a sum calculation and a single symbol rather than just two single symbols. Eventually, they learned how add the two symbols and compare the sum to a third, single symbol.To rule out the possibility that they were simply memorizing combinations of symbols, the researchers taught the monkeys an entirely new set of symbols. They were still successful, calculating previously unseen sets of combinations.The monkeys weren’t perfect, however. And in fact, they committed an error often exhibited by humans. Aviva Rutkin from New Scientist explains:
The monkeys made more mistakes on problems involving numbers that were close in value – a fact which might ultimately prove more interesting than their success at small numbers. Neuroscientists already know that the human brain is better at distinguishing between two low numbers than two high ones. For example, you could easily tell the difference between two and four birds sitting in a tree, but you’d be less likely to spot the difference between a flock of 22 and a flock of 24. What we don’t know is why. Some think it is because the brain encodes numbers logarithmically, so that we perceive the distance between two small numbers as greater than that between two large ones. Others argue that the brain encodes numbers linearly, as on a number line, but that our concept of a number becomes less distinct as the value increases.
As Rutkin points out, the monkeys were biased towards a linear scale. More insight is likely to emerge if and when monkeys are asked to perform tasks involving multiplication. (io9.com)

 

Journal Reference:Margaret S. Livingstone, Warren W. Pettine, Krishna Srihasam, Brandon Moore, Istvan A. Morocz, and Daeyeol Lee. Symbol addition by monkeys provides evidence for normalized quantity coding. PNAS 2014 : 1404208111v1-201404208. (x)

thejunglenook:

So It Turns Out That Monkeys Are Pretty Good At Doing Math

George Dvorsky, io9

A recently concluded experiment shows that rhesus monkeys are capable of doing simple addition using numbers 1 through 25. But more interesting than that is the observation that they also make the same mistakes as us.

To test whether monkeys can represent and manipulate numbers in their head, neurobiologist Margaret Livingstone of Harvard Medical School and her colleagues set up a rather interesting experiment.

Prior to this, however, the monkeys learned to associate the Arabic numbers 0 through 9 and 15 select letters with the values zero through 25. This was done by having the monkeys choose larger numbers as a means to acquire greater quantities of a food reward.

But for the new experiment, the monkeys had to work a bit harder for it. They had to perform addition in order to correctly choose the larger reward. Specifically, they were given a choice between performing a sum calculation and a single symbol rather than just two single symbols. Eventually, they learned how add the two symbols and compare the sum to a third, single symbol.

To rule out the possibility that they were simply memorizing combinations of symbols, the researchers taught the monkeys an entirely new set of symbols. They were still successful, calculating previously unseen sets of combinations.

The monkeys weren’t perfect, however. And in fact, they committed an error often exhibited by humans. Aviva Rutkin from New Scientist explains:

The monkeys made more mistakes on problems involving numbers that were close in value – a fact which might ultimately prove more interesting than their success at small numbers.

Neuroscientists already know that the human brain is better at distinguishing between two low numbers than two high ones. For example, you could easily tell the difference between two and four birds sitting in a tree, but you’d be less likely to spot the difference between a flock of 22 and a flock of 24.

What we don’t know is why. Some think it is because the brain encodes numbers logarithmically, so that we perceive the distance between two small numbers as greater than that between two large ones. Others argue that the brain encodes numbers linearly, as on a number line, but that our concept of a number becomes less distinct as the value increases.

As Rutkin points out, the monkeys were biased towards a linear scale. More insight is likely to emerge if and when monkeys are asked to perform tasks involving multiplication. (io9.com)

 

Journal Reference:
Margaret S. Livingstone, Warren W. Pettine, Krishna Srihasam, Brandon Moore, Istvan A. Morocz, and Daeyeol Lee. Symbol addition by monkeys provides evidence for normalized quantity coding. PNAS 2014 : 1404208111v1-201404208. (x)

(via koryos)

The Pulitzer-winning author explains why he adapted his classic book “The Third Chimpanzee” for kids: because we need them to fix our mistakes.

Jared Diamond didn’t start out as the globe-romping author of massive, best-selling books about the precarious state of our civilization. Rather, after a Cambridge training in physiology, he at first embarked on a career in medical research. By the mid-1980s, he had become recognized as the world’s foremost expert on, of all things, the transport of sodium in the human gall bladder.

But then in 1987, something happened: His twin sons were born. “I concluded that gall bladders were not going to save the world,” remembers Diamond on the latest episode of the Inquiring Minds podcast. “I realized that the future of my sons was not going to depend upon the wills that my wife and I were drawing up for our sons, but on whether there was going to be a world worth living in in the year 2050.”…

(Source: rhamphotheca, via somuchscience)

"The variety of worlds science fiction accustoms us to, through imagination, is training for thinking about the actual changes—sometimes catastrophic, often confusing—that the real world funnels at us year after year. It helps us avoid feeling quite so gob-smacked."
written by

Samuel Delany on how science fiction writers are shaping the future.

Also see why sci-fi authors get the future so right, then complement with Delany on good writing vs. talented writing.

(via explore-blog)
"Peace, peace! he is not dead, he doth not sleep,
He hath awaken’d from the dream of life;
‘Tis we, who lost in stormy visions keep
With phantoms an unprofitable strife,
And in mad trance, strike with our spirit’s knife
Invulnerable nothings. We decay
Like corpses in a charnel; fear and grief
Convulse us and consume us day by day,
And cold hopes swarm like worms within our living clay."
written by Percy Bysshe Shelley, “Adonais: An Elegy on the Death of John Keats” (via justassureme)
9art-and-things-of-beauty:

Edwin Lord Weeks (American, 1849-1903) 
Along the Ghats, Mathura. Oil on canvas, 65,4 x 81,3 cm.

art-and-things-of-beauty:

Edwin Lord Weeks (American, 1849-1903) 

Along the Ghats, Mathura. Oil on canvas, 65,4 x 81,3 cm.

(via eskisanat)

139neurosciencestuff:

Commonly available blood-pressure drug prevents epilepsy after brain injury
Between 10 and 20 percent of all cases of epilepsy result from severe head injury, but a new drug promises to prevent post-traumatic seizures and may forestall further brain damage caused by seizures in those who already have epilepsy.
A team of researchers from UC Berkeley, Ben-Gurion University in Israel and Charité-University Medicine in Germany reports in the current issue of the journal Annals of Neurology that a commonly used hypertension drug prevents a majority of cases of post-traumatic epilepsy in a rodent model of the disease. If independent experiments now underway in rats confirm this finding, human clinical trials could start within a few years.
“This is the first-ever approach in which epilepsy development is stopped, as opposed to common drugs that try to prevent seizures once epilepsy develops,” said coauthor Daniela Kaufer, UC Berkeley associate professor of integrative biology and a member of the Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute. “Those drugs have a very limited success and many side effects, so we are excited about the new approach.”
The team, led by Kaufer; neurosurgeon Alon Friedman, associate professor of physiology and neurobiology at the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev; and Uwe Heinemann of the Charite, provides the first explanation for how brain injury caused by a blow to the head, stroke or infection leads to epilepsy. Based on 10 years of collaborative research, their findings point a finger at the blood-brain barrier – the tight wall of cells lining the veins and arteries in the brain that is breached after trauma.
“This study for the first time offers a new mechanism and an existing, FDA-approved drug to potentially prevent epilepsy in patients after brain injuries or after they develop an abnormal blood-brain barrier,” Friedman said.
The drug, losartan (Cozaar®), prevented seizures in 60 percent of the rats tested, when normally 100 percent of the rats develop seizures after injury. In the 40 percent of rats that did develop seizures, they averaged about one quarter the number of seizures typical for untreated rats. Another experiment showed that administration of losartan for three weeks at the time of injury was enough to prevent most cases of epilepsy in normal lab rats in the following months.
“This is a very exciting result, telling us that the drug worked to prevent the development of epilepsy and not by suppressing the symptoms,” Kaufer said.
Breakdown of the blood-brain barrier
Kaufer and Friedman have been collaboratively investigating the effects of trauma on the brain since Kaufer was a graduate student in Israel 20 years ago. Throughout a postdoctoral position at Stanford University and after joining the UC Berkeley faculty in 2005, she maintained her interest in the blood-brain barrier, which normally protects the brain from potentially damaging chemicals or bacteria in the blood and prevents brain chemicals from leaking into the blood stream.
She and Friedman showed earlier that breaking down the barrier causes inflammation and leads to the development of epilepsy. They pinned the effect to a single protein called albumin, the most common protein in blood serum.
In 2009, they showed that albumin affects astrocytes, the brain’s support cells, by binding to the TGF-β (transforming growth factor-beta) receptor. This initiates a cascade of steps that lead to localized inflammation, which appears to permanently damage the brain’s wiring, leading to the electrical misfiring characteristic of epilepsy. The current paper conclusively demonstrates that blocking the TGF-beta receptor with losartan stops that cascade and prevents the disorder.
Drug’s side effect proves crucial
Coauthor Guy Bar-Klein, a doctoral student at Ben-Gurion University, searched a long list of drugs before discovering losartan, which is approved to treat high blood pressure because it blocks the angiotensin receptor 1, but which incidentally also blocks TGF-β. It worked in the rats when delivered in their drinking water, which means that it somehow gets into the brain through the blood-brain barrier. The experiments suggest that the drug is unable to cross an intact blood-brain barrier, but reaches the brain through a breached barrier when it is most needed, Kaufer said.
Friedman developed a protocol to use MRI to check whether the blood brain barrier has been breached, allowing doctors to give losartan as a preventive treatment, if necessary, after trauma. Kaufer said that the barrier may remain open for only a few weeks after injury, so the drug would not have to be given very long to prevent damage.
“Right now, if someone comes to the emergency room with traumatic brain injury, they have a 10 to 50 percent chance of developing epilepsy, and epilepsy from brain injuries tends to be unresponsive to drugs in many patients.” she said. “I’m very hopeful that our research can spare these patients the added trauma of epilepsy.”

neurosciencestuff:

Commonly available blood-pressure drug prevents epilepsy after brain injury

Between 10 and 20 percent of all cases of epilepsy result from severe head injury, but a new drug promises to prevent post-traumatic seizures and may forestall further brain damage caused by seizures in those who already have epilepsy.

A team of researchers from UC Berkeley, Ben-Gurion University in Israel and Charité-University Medicine in Germany reports in the current issue of the journal Annals of Neurology that a commonly used hypertension drug prevents a majority of cases of post-traumatic epilepsy in a rodent model of the disease. If independent experiments now underway in rats confirm this finding, human clinical trials could start within a few years.

“This is the first-ever approach in which epilepsy development is stopped, as opposed to common drugs that try to prevent seizures once epilepsy develops,” said coauthor Daniela Kaufer, UC Berkeley associate professor of integrative biology and a member of the Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute. “Those drugs have a very limited success and many side effects, so we are excited about the new approach.”

The team, led by Kaufer; neurosurgeon Alon Friedman, associate professor of physiology and neurobiology at the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev; and Uwe Heinemann of the Charite, provides the first explanation for how brain injury caused by a blow to the head, stroke or infection leads to epilepsy. Based on 10 years of collaborative research, their findings point a finger at the blood-brain barrier – the tight wall of cells lining the veins and arteries in the brain that is breached after trauma.

“This study for the first time offers a new mechanism and an existing, FDA-approved drug to potentially prevent epilepsy in patients after brain injuries or after they develop an abnormal blood-brain barrier,” Friedman said.

The drug, losartan (Cozaar®), prevented seizures in 60 percent of the rats tested, when normally 100 percent of the rats develop seizures after injury. In the 40 percent of rats that did develop seizures, they averaged about one quarter the number of seizures typical for untreated rats. Another experiment showed that administration of losartan for three weeks at the time of injury was enough to prevent most cases of epilepsy in normal lab rats in the following months.

“This is a very exciting result, telling us that the drug worked to prevent the development of epilepsy and not by suppressing the symptoms,” Kaufer said.

Breakdown of the blood-brain barrier

Kaufer and Friedman have been collaboratively investigating the effects of trauma on the brain since Kaufer was a graduate student in Israel 20 years ago. Throughout a postdoctoral position at Stanford University and after joining the UC Berkeley faculty in 2005, she maintained her interest in the blood-brain barrier, which normally protects the brain from potentially damaging chemicals or bacteria in the blood and prevents brain chemicals from leaking into the blood stream.

She and Friedman showed earlier that breaking down the barrier causes inflammation and leads to the development of epilepsy. They pinned the effect to a single protein called albumin, the most common protein in blood serum.

In 2009, they showed that albumin affects astrocytes, the brain’s support cells, by binding to the TGF-β (transforming growth factor-beta) receptor. This initiates a cascade of steps that lead to localized inflammation, which appears to permanently damage the brain’s wiring, leading to the electrical misfiring characteristic of epilepsy. The current paper conclusively demonstrates that blocking the TGF-beta receptor with losartan stops that cascade and prevents the disorder.

Drug’s side effect proves crucial

Coauthor Guy Bar-Klein, a doctoral student at Ben-Gurion University, searched a long list of drugs before discovering losartan, which is approved to treat high blood pressure because it blocks the angiotensin receptor 1, but which incidentally also blocks TGF-β. It worked in the rats when delivered in their drinking water, which means that it somehow gets into the brain through the blood-brain barrier. The experiments suggest that the drug is unable to cross an intact blood-brain barrier, but reaches the brain through a breached barrier when it is most needed, Kaufer said.

Friedman developed a protocol to use MRI to check whether the blood brain barrier has been breached, allowing doctors to give losartan as a preventive treatment, if necessary, after trauma. Kaufer said that the barrier may remain open for only a few weeks after injury, so the drug would not have to be given very long to prevent damage.

“Right now, if someone comes to the emergency room with traumatic brain injury, they have a 10 to 50 percent chance of developing epilepsy, and epilepsy from brain injuries tends to be unresponsive to drugs in many patients.” she said. “I’m very hopeful that our research can spare these patients the added trauma of epilepsy.”

(via knowscience)